Yes, Prokofiev, and especially Shostakovich, are the masters of irony and sarcasm (heck, Prokofiev even named a cycle as such!). Literature-wise, they are probably quite like Mikhail Bulgakov in this respect... actually, Bulgakov is quite an inspiration for my Prokofiev adventures.
I actually had a very hard time with witty/ironic pieces until I started to approach the score like a text in "some" language, the language being - obviously - music. Think of it as telling a witty story, an anectode, a feuilleton or narrating a sarcastic novelette, don't just play, speak
- and it will come out (in fact, it - surprisingly - just did, roughly an hour and a half ago, when I played through a Prokofiev sonata